We speak with Melissa Rivers, Principal of the Scammon Bay School in Alaska’s Lower Yukon, a mile from the Bering Sea. The isolated, tight-knit Yupik Eskimo community is subsistence-based, harvesting moose and salmon. Students are artistic and learn by making things, but also must prepare for standardized tests designed for very different environments. For the past several years, Scammon Bay has participated in a cross-cultural exchange program run by the Alaska Humanities Forum to promote understanding among Alaska’s urban and rural communities.
ethics in education
John Dewey, arguably America’s greatest 20th century philosopher and educator, stressed the importance of teaching habits of rigorous ethical inquiry in the classroom and in the larger society. He argued that students should learn to consider the impacts of their individual and collective social, economic, and political choices. Fortunately, many schools and youth programs encourage students to consider how their actions impact humans, animals (other than human), and the planet. In fact, it’s difficult to imagine a meaningful SEL (social and emotional learning) program that doesn’t incorporate ethical decision-making.
Why, then, when it comes time to discuss college and career, do high schools typically encourage students to go to the “best” schools they can get into and to “follow [their] passions”? Why does most college counseling omit the ethical implications of choosing a particular school, and why do most career counselors minimize the potential impact on the well-being of humans and animals (other than human) of choosing one career over others?
In many middle- and upper-income communities, the college application process is fiercely competitive. As Michael Crow, Arizona State University’s president observed, “The race to get into elite colleges is a full-blown hysteria.” The recent college admissions scandal shed light on some parents’ willingness to engage in (and model) grossly unethical behavior to ensure their children were admitted to exclusive colleges, whether or not they qualified. Between 2011 and 2018, wealthy parents, among them CEOs and celebrities, collectively paied more than $25 million to Rick Singer, a college coach and consultant who used some of the funds to bribe test proctors, coaches, and college officials.
In March, Harvard’s Making Caring Common Project released “Turning the Tide II: How Parents and High Schools Can Cultivate Ethical Character and Reduce Distress in The College Admissions Process.” The report calls on the adults in the process to promote “greater ethical engagement among high school students, level the playing field for economically disadvantaged students, and reduce excessive achievement pressure” and includes a joint statement signed by 140 public and private college admissions officers endorsing the report’s goals.
Although most parents don’t engage in bribery schemes to get their children into college, many compromise their own and their children’s integrity. Some of the wealthiest families make large donations to colleges. Others co-write their children’s college essays or look away when hired tutors write the essays. “Tide II” encourages parents to use the admissions process as an opportunity to explore values rather than pressure their students to get into highly competitive colleges at any cost. When parents, consciously or not, view their children’s college acceptances as measures of their own status or success, their children may experience overwhelming stress, shame (especially if their interests or grades don’t coincide with their parents’ aspirations), or envy.
The report suggests that in addition to setting clear expectations for parents, high schools can promote healthier and more equitable college application practices. Counselors and teachers should create opportunities for sustained and meaningful community service that doesn’t require expensive travel. Many teenagers are unable to participate in community service outside the home because they have obligations to their families. They may need to contribute income or babysit for younger siblings. Counselors and teachers can reinforce the value of these contributions and encourage students to report them on their college applications.
SEL initiatives such as New York State’s new Culturally Responsive-Sustaining Framework envision “students who have a critical lens through which they challenge inequitable systems of access, power, and privilege.” Teachers can initiate discussions on the vast differences in access to resources in the admissions process and ask student what a more equitable system might look like. Finally, culturally competent counselors can help families navigate the complicated college and scholarship application process.
Career choices as well have ethical dimensions. Although many high school and college students want to “change the world” or “give back,” they rarely have the tools or data to determine how they can be most impactful. Effective altruism is a field of research that uses evidence and analysis to help people determine how to spend their time and money so as to do the most good. Good is loosely defined as the well-being of humans and animals (other than human) over time.
Naturally, many students work on problems with which they’re already familiar. They know about the problems their friends and their communities face. Some gravitate to “helping professions” – medicine, social work, teaching, or animal rescue, for example – that directly impact lives. Others are drawn to high-profile nonprofit organizations. Few, however, take a more systematic approach to seeing how they can do the most good (and the least harm). Career seekers who aren’t committed to particular professions might be encouraged identify those causes to which their added efforts can make the biggest long-term difference at the margin.
80,000 Hours is a nonprofit organization that helps students and recent graduates figure out how most impactfully to use their careers to help solve the world’s most pressing problems. 80,000 approximates the number of hours a person spends working over the course of a career. More than any other factor, the causes young people choose are most determinative of their lifetime career impact. Young people might want to look at lesser-known yet critical causes where there seem to be prospects for progress.
Schools can encourage students to explore several career paths until they find a good fit. Talents and interests may change over time. Those aspiring altruists who aren’t able to work on causes that intrigue them right away – for logistical or financial reasons, for example – might want to acquire skills they can use later on.
Even students who haven’t explicitly committed to improving the world may choose not to embark on careers if their involvement could lead to an increase in human or animal (other than human) suffering. A graphic design major, for example, might avoid working with a company that promotes potentially unhealthy or unsustainable products.
By the time they’re ready to make college and career choices, students in ethics-centered schools have had plenty of practice in choosing options that, as Zoe Weil of the Institute of Human Education articulates so succinctly, “do the most good and the least harm.”
John Dewey asserted that individuals and organizations should revisit and, if necessary, revise their decisions from time to time in light of socio-economic developments and scientific advances. Counselors can help students plan when and how they’ll revisit their life choices.
Thoughtful, informed decision-making is critical to building ethical institutions and dismantling systems of oppression. Without it, the planet and its inhabitants are doomed.
We interview Lev Moscow who, for the last 14 years, has taught history and economics at The Beacon School in New York City. Lev reflects that advisory, done well, can serve as a venue for students to explore questions of ethics, purpose and happiness. He talks about balancing the history curriculum to include non-European perspectives. Getting students to read more than a few sentences is perhaps today’s teachers’ greatest challenge and Lev explains his approach.
Lev refers to John Dewey, Tony Judt, and these resources:
Amy interviews Leo Ackley, who emigrated to Finland in the 1972. He taught art, history of architecture, design, and engineering in Finnish schools for 37 years. We discuss the Finnish system. Teachers have autonomy to develop their own curricula. Finnish administrators are answerable to teachers rather than the other way around. Homework is rare and standardized testing limited to a single exam towards the end of senior year. Finland is consistently in the top five in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) rankings.
Photo by Baptiste Valthier
We interview Kym Vanderbilt, Lecturer and Professional Development Liaison in the Early Childhood/Childhood Department at CUNY/Lehman College. Kym describes her students’ concerns about meeting the needs of teacher assistants and parents as well as children. She talks about the test-heavy teacher certification process, which is both intimidating and expensive for aspiring teachers of limited means, and how she tries to create a more welcoming and supportive environment for her students, staying in touch with them long after they become teachers themselves. To give us context, Kym gives us a fascinating overview of the complicated history of early childhood education.
Photo by Christina Morillo
We speak with Dr. David E. Kirkland, Executive Director of NYU’s Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools. A leading voice in culturally responsive and sustaining education, the Metro Center helped write New York State Education Department’s new Culturally Responsive-Sustaining Education Framework. The Framework is founded on a view of education that regards culture as a critical component of learning. Multiple expressions of diversity, including race, ethnicity, gender, language, and sexual orientation, are regarded as assets to be recognized and cultivated.
Norman Fruchter on the pioneering alternative high school he and colleagues built in Newark in the 1970s
We speak with Norm Fruchter, long-time educational activist and thought leader, about Independence School, an experimental high school where the ideal was that someone walking into a classroom couldn’t tell the teacher from the students. We discuss lessons learned – and perhaps forgotten – about supporting students whose original schools failed them. Among the school’s strengths were authentic, enduring relationships among teachers and students, teaching strategies that enabled illiterate students to learn to read without embarrassment, month-long internship breaks, and curriculum that referenced students’ life experiences.
Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash
Soledad Hiciano on nurturing and educating immigrant children in an age of deportation and deprivation
We speak with Soledad Hiciano, executive director of Community Association of Progressive Dominicans (ACDP), a multi-service community organization in Upper Manhattan and the Bronx. She describes the challenges of supporting children who may have experienced multiple traumas, including homelessness and the deportation of close relatives.
Photo by Bruce Warrington
David C. Bloomfield on why we need a revolution in attitude to see education as a social good rather than an individual property right
We speak with Dr. David C. Bloomfield, Professor of Education Leadership. Law & Policy at Brooklyn College. David Bloomfield cond
We speak with Silvia Canales, who coordinates the college advisory program at Brotherhood/Sister Sol, an organization that provides comprehensive and holistic support services to underserved youth. Silvia talks about fully integrating college counseling into a program environment in which adults know young people well and students engage in systematic self-reflection.
“Nurturing, Healing Love” was the message that Scarlett Lewis found on her kitchen chalkboard shortly before her son, Jesse, was murdered in his first-grade classroom at Sandy Hook Elementary School. In order to become part of the solution to the violence, Scarlett founded The Jesse Lewis Choose Love Movement with a mission to ensure that all children have access to Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in their classrooms. We talk about post-traumatic growth and how the program educates and encourages students to choose love over anger.
Adán Vásquez on The Washington Heights Community Conservatory of Fine Arts: “I could be the one playing the cello!”
We talk with Adán Vásquez, executive and artistic director of the Association of Dominican Classical Artists and the Washington Heights Community Conservatory of Fine Arts, a unique free classical and folk music education program for the youth of Upper Manhattan. Adán Vásquez, a harpist, is an educator, an acclaimed classical musician, and a community activist. He talks about making Latin American and European classical music and Latin American folk music accessible to low-income young people of color, and the role of performing arts in transforming children’s lives and community building. We listen to excerpts of students playing Carabine by Julio Alberto Hernández and the Conservatory faculty (“La Camerata Washington Heights”) performing Migraciones by Servio R. Reyes.
Kids learn through relationships: a conversation with Pedro Noguera about building a culture conducive to teaching and learning
We talk with Dr. Pedro Noguera about public school models that work for students, parents and teachers, and how to build a social movement for a progressive education agenda. He talks about the social dimensions to learning and the mismatch between students’ needs and teachers’ skills. He argues that an obstacle to making change in schools is that we deal with education as individuals rather than collectively. Pedro Noguera is a Distinguished Professor of Education at the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies and Faculty Director for the Center for the Transformation of Schools at UCLA. He is a critically acclaimed scholar, a dynamic speaker and a committed activist. His work focuses on a broad range of issues related to education, social justice and public policy. He is the author of several best-selling books and is a highly sought-after public speaker and international consultant.
Jason Warwin on The Brotherhood/Sister Sol: building strong Black and Latinx youth leaders for social change
Jason Warwin is the Co-Founder and Associate Executive Director of The Brotherhood/Sister Sol, an organization that provides comprehensive, holistic and long-term support services to youth who range in age from eight to twenty-two. Located in Harlem (NYC), Bro/Sis also has programs dedicated to developing Black and Latinx youth in Africa, Latin America and The Caribbean. Jason is a specialist in the design of transformative experiences and we talked about how the Bro/Sis model leads young people to ethical leadership and educational achievement, and makes them an essential part of a solid community that has been fighting oppression for almost 25 years.
Stephanie Carnes on Post-traumatic Growth and Resilience: cultural competence and creating safe environments for Central American immigrant children in today’s U.S.
We talk with Stephanie Carnes, a trauma-focused bilingual school social worker in a large public high school in New York’s Hudson Valley. Stephanie worked as the lead clinician in a federally-funded shelter program for unaccompanied children from Central America and as a consultant she challenges the districts and agencies with whom she works to re-envision the meaning of an inclusive community. We talk about the necessity to normalize mental health care, how to create safe environments for immigrant children in American schools, and the power of their resilience.
Mark Gordon on the Friends and Relationships Course: teaching and learning from people with intellectual disabilities about sexuality, interdependence, and inclusion
We talk with Mark Gordon, founder of the Friends and Relationships Course, a program in New Mexico that provides classes for adults with intellectual disabilities who want to learn how to form intimate and other relationships. He talks about what he’s learned over 15 years of teaching sexuality classes, learning along with his son about the ongoing necessity for interdependence. We also discuss society’s failure to welcome and accommodate people with developmental disabilities.
We talk with Zoe Weil, the co-founder and president of the Institute for Humane Education. She talks about providing young people with the knowledge, tools, and motivation to address our pressing challenges in order to transform unsustainable and unjust systems into ones that are humane, healthy, and peaceful.
We talk with MacArthur “genius” award winner Deborah Meier, a founder of the small schools movement, about what makes a good school. She talks about how to build and maintain trust and mutual respect among students, teachers, and families.
Ethical Schools (an initiative of Ethics In Education Network ®) offers customized professional development programs for administrators, teachers, and youth workers. Please contact us to schedule a free consultation and site visit.